Michael Jackson Memorial at the statue of Orlando di Lasso
Iconoclasm, Beauty and Aesthetics
Serving social justice while acknowledging our shared history through monuments can be a complex and nuanced process. Rather than simply glorifying historical figures or events, monuments can be contextualized to acknowledge the complex historical circumstances in which they were created. This can involve providing additional information about the historical context in which the person or event is being commemorated, including information about the negative impacts they may have had on marginalized groups.
New monuments can be created to honor individuals or events that have been historically overlooked. These could include figures from marginalized communities who have made important contributions to society but have not been recognized in traditional monuments.
Some monuments may be actively harmful and offensive to marginalized communities. In these cases, it may be appropriate to remove them entirely or relocate them to a museum where they can be viewed in their proper historical context.
It is important to involve community members in the decision-making process around monuments. This can involve engaging in public dialogue and consultation with community members to determine what monuments are important to them and how they would like to see them contextualized or replaced.
Ultimately, the process of serving social justice while acknowledging our shared history through monuments will require ongoing dialogue and collaboration between communities, historians, and government officials. It will require an understanding that monuments are not static symbols, but rather living representations of our evolving history and values.
There have been similar periods of iconoclasm in modern history like what we've experienced recently with the removal of offensive monuments, in the U.S. and elsewhere.
In the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government embarked on a campaign of iconoclasm aimed at eradicating religious and monarchist symbols from public spaces. This included the removal of statues of Tsar Nicholas II and other members of the Romanov dynasty. The lasting effect on Soviet culture was significant, as it helped to cement the new government's power and shape the country's identity as a secular, socialist state.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong launched a campaign of iconoclasm aimed at eradicating symbols of China's pre-revolutionary past. This included the destruction of historical artifacts, temples, and statues. The lasting effect on Chinese culture was also significant, as it helped to reshape the country's identity and reinforce the power of the Communist Party.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, as communist regimes in Eastern Europe began to fall, there were widespread protests against statues and monuments associated with the former regimes. Many of these monuments were removed or destroyed, and new ones were erected to commemorate the struggle for democracy and human rights. The lasting effect on culture was significant, as it helped to reshape the identity of the region and reinforce the values of democracy and freedom.
The lasting effects of these periods of iconoclasm varied depending on the specific circumstances and cultural context. In some cases, the removal of monuments helped to reinforce a new government's power and reshape a country's identity. In other cases, it helped to reinforce the values of democracy and freedom. However, in some cases, it led to a loss of cultural heritage and historical memory. It is important to approach the removal of monuments and symbols with a thoughtful and nuanced understanding of their historical context and cultural significance, while also acknowledging the harm they may have caused to marginalized communities.
The nature of beauty from a Christian perspective is complex and multifaceted, and has been the subject of much theological and philosophical inquiry throughout history.
In Christianity, beauty is ultimately grounded in God, who is the source of all that is good and beautiful. The beauty of the natural world, human relationships, and artistic creations all point back to God's own beauty and goodness.
According to Christian theology, human beings are created in the image of God, and as such, are capable of reflecting God's beauty and goodness in their own lives and creations. This means that beauty is not only an objective quality of the world, but also a subjective experience that is tied to our relationship with God.
In Christian thought, beauty is also intimately connected with the process of redemption and restoration. The beauty of the natural world and human relationships has been marred by sin and brokenness, but through the work of Christ, these things can be restored to their original beauty and goodness.
Finally, beauty has an important role in Christian worship and spiritual practice. The beauty of liturgical music, art, and architecture can inspire and uplift the human spirit, and can help to draw people closer to God.
Beauty and Contemporary Art
A Christian view of beauty can inform and support contemporary art strategies in a number of ways, although it is important to note that there is not necessarily a single "Christian" perspective on any given issue.
Institutional critique is an art strategy that seeks to expose and challenge the structures of power and authority that shape the art world. From a Christian perspective, this can be seen as a way of shining a light on the ways in which human institutions can fall short of God's standards of justice and fairness. The Christian emphasis on social justice and the dignity of every human being can provide a foundation for critiques of institutional power.
Feminist art strategies seek to challenge patriarchal norms and values, and to promote greater gender equality and empowerment. From a Christian perspective, this can be seen as an expression of the biblical teaching that men and women are equal in the sight of God, and that women should be treated with dignity and respect. Christian feminists might draw on themes of mutuality and partnership in the Bible to support their critiques of patriarchal power structures.
Other art strategies focus on the underlying structures and systems that shape society and culture. From a Christian perspective, this can be seen as a way of recognizing the fallenness and brokenness of the world, and of seeking to understand the deeper roots of social and cultural problems. Christians might draw on themes of sin and redemption to support their critiques of structural injustices.
The aesthetics of feminist theology is a field of study that explores the relationship between feminist theology and aesthetics, including visual culture. At its core, feminist theology seeks to challenge patriarchal norms and values within the Christian tradition and to promote greater gender equality and justice. In doing so, feminist theologians often draw on a variety of artistic and aesthetic strategies to critique dominant narratives and to express alternative visions of the divine and the human.
One of the key ways in which the aesthetics of feminist theology addresses visual culture is through the use of visual art as a means of expression and critique. Many feminist theologians have used art to challenge traditional depictions of God as a masculine figure, and to explore alternative images of the divine that are more inclusive and egalitarian. For example, some feminist artists have depicted God as a woman, or as a figure that is both male and female, in order to challenge patriarchal assumptions about the nature of God.
Feminist theology also seeks to address the ways in which visual culture can perpetuate harmful stereotypes and objectify women's bodies. In this context, feminist theologians have developed critiques of popular media and advertising, which often present women as objects of male desire rather than as autonomous individuals with their own agency and worth. Feminist theologians have also developed alternative visual representations of women's bodies that celebrate the diversity and complexity of female experience.
Ascetism and Abundance
Asceticism, in its traditional sense, is a spiritual practice that involves self-discipline, self-denial, and the renunciation of material goods and pleasures in order to cultivate a deeper spiritual awareness and connection with God. While it may seem paradoxical, asceticism can be seen as a form of abundance in that it allows individuals to focus their attention and energies on the things that truly matter, rather than being distracted or consumed by the superficialities of everyday life.
In art history, asceticism has been a recurring theme in various artistic traditions, particularly in Christian art. One example of asceticism as a form of abundance can be found in the medieval Christian tradition of illuminated manuscripts. These were books that were created by monks who lived in isolated, ascetic communities and who devoted their lives to copying and decorating sacred texts. The monks who created these manuscripts lived simple, disciplined lives, often in poverty and without many of the material comforts that were available to others in society. However, their artistic creations were filled with elaborate decorations and illustrations, creating a sense of richness and abundance that was rooted in their spiritual discipline and devotion.
Another example of asceticism as a form of abundance can be found in the work of twentieth-century minimalist artists such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin. These artists embraced a pared-down aesthetic that focused on the use of simple geometric forms and industrial materials. By reducing their artistic vocabulary to its most basic elements, these artists sought to create a sense of clarity and simplicity that would allow viewers to focus more fully on the essential qualities of their work. In doing so, they created a sense of abundance that was rooted in the economy and precision of their artistic practice.